Concept of Political ideology is related to the identity of a nation. It means ideology symbolizes the way of the nation well being and impact the policy. Nowadays it is also being causes of clashes in external as well as internal politics.
Fundamentally, we should understand that we are linked to each other that’s why the theory of the global village has arisen. Today we need a new concept of ideology which could connect the common perspectives of humanity.
Nations are born out of travail and suffering.
Said by: Mahatma Gandhi
Meaning is clear, we have a common origin and same journey to the goodness of humanity on the planet. It is the time when we approach each other idea and knowledge, so why not we can lead the world with the common understanding which motive must be common to save the earth for human and human for the earth.
In the underdeveloped world, many ideologies such as Imperialism and colonialism were born which played an important role in changing the map of the world but they are now the only history. Any ideology remains relevant in the world as long as it keeps the consent of the people.
Capitalism and Marxism became competitors during the Cold War era from 1945 to 1991. That’s why afterwards political scholars used ideologies as an element to define international relations.
What is a political Ideology?
Political Ideology is a certain set of ethical thoughts that inspired societies in a definite direction to fulfil the common goals. Ideology affects the choice of the intentions and objectives of national interest as well as the mediums for securing these goals. It is an element of nation-building as well as a symbol of national power.
Ideology is behind every thought process of community, religion, race caste and gender etc. Every tradition, religion, and society is the product of Ideology which developed by different philosophers in their time.
Today you can see, most of the nations are divided based on ethnicity and religions, they have factual difference as ideology. An Ideology is an ancient concept, it approved and advertised from the ancient period 5th-6th BCE.
The concept of political Ideology developed during the French Revolution as “Science of Idea”. which was based on Bacon proclamation that the destiny of science was not only to enlarge human knowledge but also to “improve the lives of human on earth”.
Philosophy of Ideology and religion
In my understanding philosophy is “a science of human thought” in which human mind works to search new idea and study the impact on human, society and planet life. Religion enriches with its history to play an important role in the social evolution of human society.
Religion and ideology are the same in many contexts such as total systematic evolution in many dimensions and same logical concept. But the difference between ideology and religion is more important than similarities. As religious theory constructed around divine order for a just society, while ideology developed in the real world only.
Religion proclaims about faith and worship; it’s an appeal about inwardness and aim to the purification of the spirit. While ideology is a verbal expression of group, class or nation. It advocates social welfare based on some political theory such as equality, liberty and justice.
These contrast can be seen in ancient Baudh and Jain tradition which was first ever social reform in Indian society. If you want to know more about this, then you should study the history of ancient Rome deeply.
Political ideology and Terrorism
Ideology is a way of searching for solutions to common social, political, and economic issues. Though the idea of politics is formalised during Plato, its roots in-depth far behind.
As it is suggested, an Idea can change the whole world so it is more important than anything in the present world. Lets forwarded with Idea, that impact upon political perspective or ideology of political behaviour.
Most of the political ideology developed in revolutionary circumstances against traditional regional politics or monarchy. As soon as they were developed and accepted by the masses of society, they started to establish domination whether it was a capitalist or communist.
Domination of any ideology is one of the great causes of dissatisfaction in society. Perhaps, When a group of the religious/radical community violently tries to dominate the whole society or world. There were many ideologies develop in the world such as Fascism and Nazism which created threats for the world political system.
Ideological conflict is one of the most common issues in society from ancient times, but COLD WAR is an example of the first ideological clash at the world front. The end of World War II is also considered the beginning of current global politics. Therefore, it would not be wrong to say that the present global politics is also born in the shadow of the Cold War. This is why dissatisfaction is still seen in current global politics.
Political Ideologies in World
There are many political ideologies developed in multiple phases of world politics. These phases are evolved due to the struggle and inter-relationship of different political ideologies in a different period. Some basic descriptions of all great ideologies are:-
Ancient World political ideologies:-
Anarchism:- A society without government, laws, police or other authority. System of self-control, this type of system was in initial societies, when people lived in caravans.
Aristocracy:- An system of administration by the privileged class of society which control entire state administration. Members of the elite possess a disproportionately large percentage of society’s wealth, prestige and political influence. Romans created such administration in which emperor, senators and army played an important role.
Absolutism:- A system in which the rulers have unlimited control over the governmental body and people. Most of the initial princely states were controlled by a king who claims absolute authority in his kingdom.
Autocracy:– Supreme political power is in the hands of one person whose decision are unregulated. This was also a type of absolutism in which all political bodies held in one hand.
Theocracy:- This is an ideology in which Churchs control states authority by their norms. This was the ancient era of the world when Roman catholic churches led the western world.
Modern world political ideologies:-
Liberalism:- An ideology that intoned the importance of freedom in human life. A representative form of government, free-speech, abolition of class privilege and state protection of the individual. Liberal politics started in Britain but expanded to the whole world after the French revolution. Today most of constitution have liberalism as most accepted ideology.
Socialism:- Left-wing political system where the principal means of production, distribution and exchange are in common ownership. Socialism is the second-most powerful ideology after liberalism but due to lack of institutionalization, it completely depends upon communism. Communism completely relies on revolutionary socialism which developed by Marx and Angeles. Leaders such as Lenin and Mao led this ideology in further world.
Capitalism:- Right-wing political system where the principal means of production and distribution are in private hands. This political ideology is influenced by liberals who believed in freedom. As most of American and Europian countries are currently follow this ideology.
Communism:- Extreme left-wing ideology based on the revolutionary socialist teachings of Marx and Angels who believe in collective ownership and a planned economy. Each should work to their capability and receive according to their needs. System in USSR and China accept this ideology.
Conservatism:- Governmental system where the existing institution are maintained, emphasizing free-enterprise and minimal governmental intervention. Conservatives emphasizes on the amendment, not for change.
Nationalism:- This ideology did not develop by any idea of revolution. French Revolution was also a cause of nationalism in the world because, after France, nationalism grew as a powerful asset in many colonies. A great demand for unification of the state and release from foreign rule arose. Art and Culture played an important role to develop nationalism in people. Some great leaders also became ideals in the world such as Mahatma Gandhi in India.
Popular Forms of Government in the World
We know, today there are more than two hundred independent countries in the world. Each country has its independent ideology as well as an administrative system. They all have four major elements of states as; 1. People 2. Land 3. Government and 4. Sovereignty. But they have different form of government according to their history, ideology and ethnicity.
Form of modern Politics:-
Imperialism:- The extension of power and rule beyond established geographical boundaries. This was the expansion policies of some ambitious leaders of the world which converted into European political ideology. This was the primary cause to make Europe a battleground later. Some powerful imperialist powers were Great Britain, Spain, France, Dutch and Portuguese.
Democracy:- Government by the people usually through elected representatives. This is a form of politics develop by liberalism. In which government is not a permanent body of the system.
Dictatorship:- Government by a single person with absolute control over the resources of the state. It is not a formal form of government because it developed due to idealism or populism.
Fascism:- Intense right-wing nationalist ideology where the existing social order is protected by the forcible suppression of the working class. This type of ideologies develop during the first world war (1914 to 1918), decades of the early 20th century. Italy and Germany are the great examples of fascist leadership during the second world war (1939 to 1945).
Marxism:- Developed by Marx and Engles, it proposes that all system is subject to change. Resistance to change necessitates the overthrow of the system through class struggle. This is also called scientific socialism because it provides a complete system of revolution. Lenin was a great follower of Marxism who established USSR after the first world war after a successful Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917.
Maoism:- Mao is another enthusiast of communist who interpret the Marxist communism emphasizing the development of agriculture. Mao led the Chinese mass against the British and French empire for independence. When China became free in 1949, he set up a powerful communist government in China Republic.
Forms of ancient Politics:-
Monarchy:- A form of rule in which the head of state is a King or Queen. This was an ancient political ideology but some trace can be seen in the present world such as Britain and Bhutan. Britain is a democratic monarchy under Taj rule while Bhutan is a complete Monarchy.
Oligarchy:- A form of government in which virtually all administrative power held in the hand of wealthy people who shape policy to benefit themselves. Democracy is also partially affected by oligarchy due to expensive election system.
Populism:- The ideologies in which demand the redistribution of political power and economic leadership to the ‘common people’. Populist leaders combine the elements of the left and the right, opposing large business and financial interest. Though populist leaders